The main reason that people should take supplements is that their diet is lacking in one or more, (probably a few), micro nutrients; i.e. vitamins and minerals. People also supplement with protein, which is one of the three, (actually four counting alcohol), macro nutrients, but you rarely ever here of anyone intentionally supplementing their diet with extra carbohydrates and/or fats.


Pill BottlesA vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. The term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animals. Biotin and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances. The term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, essential amino acids, or the large number of other nutrients that promote health but are otherwise required less often. Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present.

Here is a list and a simplified explanation of what they do.

  • Vitamin A
    This vitamin is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal, that is necessary for both low-light (scotopic vision) and color vision. Vitamin A also functions as an irreversibly oxidized form of retinol known as retinoic acid, which is an important hormone-like growth factor for epithelial and other cells.

    The recommended daily allowance of Vitamin A is 900 mcg for men and 700 mcg for women, however this value has been questioned following the publication of data indicating that a high intake of vitamin A in older people leads to an increased risk of hip fractures.

  • B vitamins
    A group of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. The B vitamins were once simply referred to as vitamin B (much as people refer to vitamin C or vitamin D), but it was determined that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. Supplements containing all eight are referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin:

    B1 (thiamine) RDA:1.3 mg for both men and women
    B2 (riboflavin) RDA:1.3 mg for men and 1.1 mg for women
    B3 (niacin or niacin amide) RDA:16 mg for men and 14 mg for women
    B5 (pantothenic acid) RDA:5 mg for both men and women
    B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine, or pyridoxine hydrochloride) RDA:1.3 mg for both men and women
    B7 (biotin)
    B9 (folic acid)
    B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin in vitamin supplements) RDA:2.4 mcg for both men and women

    Commonly accepted functions of B vitamins are;
    To support and increase the rate of metabolism
    To maintain healthy skin, hair and muscle tone
    To enhance immune and nervous system function
    To promote cell growth and division, including that of the red blood cells that help prevent anemia
    To reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer - one of the most lethal forms of cancer - when consumed in food, but not when ingested in vitamin tablet form.

  • Vitamin C  ( L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate)
    An essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress. It is also a co factor in at least eight enzymatic reactions including several collagen synthesis reactions that cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy when they are dysfunctional. In animals these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. Vitamin C is found in high concentrations in immune cells, and is consumed quickly during infections. Vitamin C is a natural antihistamine. It both prevents histamine release and increases the detoxification of histamine.

    The recommended daily allowance of Vitamin C is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women. Smokers should add 35 mg to these values, and some nutritionists believe that 200 mg of vitamin C per day is probably optimal for everyone. This is more than twice the current RDA, but far lower than the 2,000 mg/day that is the upper limit (UL) and that some people exceed in the hope of warding off colds, cancer, etc.

  • Vitamin D
    A group of fat-soluble secosteroids. In humans Vitamin D is unique both because it functions as a pro hormone and because when sun exposure is adequate, the body can synthesize it (as Vitamin D3). The most important roles of vitamin D are to maintain skeletal calcium balance, promoting bone resorption, maintaining calcium and phosphate levels for bone formation, and allowing the maintenance of proper serum calcium levels.

  • Vitamin E
    A group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols.There are many different forms of vitamin E, of which γ-tocopherol is the most common in the North American diet. γ-Tocopherol can be found in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine and dressings. α-Tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is the second most common form of vitamin E in the North American diet. This variant of vitamin E can be found most abundantly in wheat germ oil, sunflower, and safflower oils. It is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation.

    The recommended daily allowance of Vitamin E is 15 mcg for men and women.

  • Vitamin K
    A group of structurally similar, fat soluble vitamins, mostly required for blood coagulation, but also involved in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. The U.S. Dietary Reference Intake for an Adequate Intake of vitamin K for a 25-year old male is 120 micrograms/day.

    The recommended daily allowance of Vitamin K is 120 mcg for men and 90 mcg for women.


Dietary minerals are inorganic substances. Our body needs adequate amount of dietary minerals for vital body processes and body developments. Some major dietary minerals:

  • Calcium
    Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, muscle function, nerve transmission, intracellular signaling and hormonal secretion, though less than 1% of total body calcium is needed to support these critical metabolic functions. Serum calcium is very tightly regulated and does not fluctuate with changes in dietary intakes; the body uses bone tissue as a reservoir for, and source of calcium, to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids.

    The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure and function. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in periods of growth in children and adolescents, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among post menopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.

    RDA 1000 mg for men and women

  • Iron
    Iron, one of the most abundant metals on Earth, is essential to most life forms and to normal human physiology. Iron is an integral part of many proteins and enzymes that maintain good health. In humans, iron is an essential component of proteins involved in oxygen transport. It is also essential for the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. A deficiency of iron limits oxygen delivery to cells, resulting in fatigue, poor work performance, and decreased immunity. On the other hand, excess amounts of iron can result in toxicity and even death.

    Almost two-thirds of iron in the body is found in hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to tissues. Smaller amounts of iron are found in myoglobin, a protein that helps supply oxygen to muscle, and in enzymes that assist biochemical reactions. Iron is also found in proteins that store iron for future needs and that transport iron in blood. Iron stores are regulated by intestinal iron absorption.

    RDA 8 mg for men and 18 mg for women

  • Magnesium
    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and is essential to good health. Approximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly inside cells of body tissues and organs. Only 1% of magnesium is found in blood, but the body works very hard to keep blood levels of magnesium constant.

    Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. There is an increased interest in the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Dietary magnesium is absorbed in the small intestines. Magnesium is excreted through the kidneys.

    RDA 400 mg for men and 310 mg for women

  • Phosphorus
    Next to calcium, phosphorus is the most abundant mineral in the body. These 2 important nutrients work closely together to build strong bones and teeth. About 85% of phosphorus in the body can be found in bones and teeth, but it is also present in cells and tissues throughout the body. Phosphorus helps filter out waste in the kidneys and plays an essential role in how the body stores and uses energy. It also helps reduce muscle pain after a hard workout. Phosphorus is needed for the growth, maintenance, and repair of all tissues and cells, and for the production of the genetic building blocks, DNA and RNA. Phosphorus is also needed to help balance and use other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin D, iodine, magnesium, and zinc.

    Most people get plenty of phosphorus in their diets. The mineral is found in milk, grains, and protein rich foods. Some health conditions such as diabetes, starvation, and alcoholism can cause levels of phosphorus in the body to fall. The same is true of conditions that make it hard for people to absorb nutrients, such as Crohn's disease and celiac disease. Some medications can cause phosphorus levels to drop, including some antacids and diuretics (water pills). Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency include loss of appetite, anxiety, bone pain, fragile bones, stiff joints, fatigue, irregular breathing, irritability, numbness, weakness, and weight change. In children, decreased growth and poor bone and tooth development may occur.

    Having too much phosphorus in the body is actually more common and more worrisome than having too little. Too much phosphorus is generally caused by kidney disease or by consuming too much dietary phosphorus and not enough dietary calcium. Several studies suggest that higher intakes of phosphorus are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As the amount of phosphorus you eat rises, so does the need for calcium. The delicate balance between calcium and phosphorus is necessary for proper bone density and prevention of osteoporosis.

    RDA 700 mg for men and women

  • Selenium
    Selenium is an essential mineral found in small amounts in the body. It works as an antioxidant, especially when combined with vitamin E. Antioxidants like selenium help fight damaging particles in the body known as free radicals. Free radicals can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to aging and a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.

    Selenium plays a role in thyroid function and your immune system needs selenium to work properly. People with a number of conditions, ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to some types of cancer, often have low levels of selenium. However, in most cases scientists aren't sure whether low selenium levels are a cause or an effect of the disease.

    RDA 55 mcg for men and women

  • Zinc
    Zinc is an essential trace mineral, so you get it through the foods you eat. Next to iron, zinc is the most common mineral in the body and is found in every cell. It has been used since ancient times to help heal wounds and plays an important role in the immune system, reproduction, growth, taste, vision, and smell, blood clotting, and proper insulin and thyroid function.

    Zinc also has antioxidant properties, meaning it helps protect cells in the body from damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals may contribute to the aging process, as well as the development of a number of health problems, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.

    RDA 11 mg for men and
    8 mg for women


Micro nutrients are many, and complicated, but that's okay, because the better supplement companies have done the research for us, and have come up with some excellent multi-vitamin/mineral formulas, and all we have to do is take them. I do believe, however, that you are better off sticking with natural, as opposed to synthetic versions, because your body will recognize them, and will readily know how to put them to good use.


Proteins are the building blocks of life. The body needs protein to repair and maintain itself. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. Every cell in the human body contains protein. It is a major part of the skin, muscles, organs, and glands. Protein is also found in all body fluids, except bile and urine. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development during childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy.

Protein is the building block of our whole body - muscles, tissues, hair, nails, etc - all made up of protein. If you do not have enough protein in your body you can NOT build muscle mass. The body needs to break protein down to amino acids to build muscles. So, no matter how much you work out - if you don't have protein - you will not gain muscle mass.

Another important point to remember is that every time you work out you are tearing down muscles and then rebuilding them. Protein is necessary to repair and rebuild your muscles. 

Increasing your daily protein intake while on a resistance training program helps to increase lean muscle mass. The human body is in a constant state of “protein turnover.” Muscle tissue is continuously being repaired and replaced. To maximize this repair, you must maintain a protein positive nitrogen balance.

When you under eat protein, you confuse your body. It only has so many raw materials to work with, and can’t repair everything it needs to repair. In this scenario, muscle can be lost. In addition, other vital bodily functions are compromised, such as hormone regulation and blood PH balance.

When you are involved with an intense weight training regimen, more muscle tissue then normal is in need of repair. This is the reason why weightlifters and bodybuilders need more protein. Muscle growth is more taxing on the body’s nitrogen balance then muscle maintenance.

Frequent protein feedings insure a steady stream of amino acids, and help maintain a proper nitrogen balance.

Types of protein supplements

Whey Protein Whey proteins account for 20% of the protein in milk. Whey protein is a by-product in the production of cheese. Initially thought of as just a waste product, whey protein is now the most popular protein supplementation protein source. It has a very high BV rating, and is rich in the muscle-building amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Whey protein is a fast digesting protein source, and isn’t filling. Whey protein is also low in glutamine and arginine.

Whey Isolate Whey isolate is a more expensive version of whey protein. It is a higher quality protein source with a higher biological value (BV), and contains less fat and lactose per serving then whey concentrate. Whey isolate generally contains 90 to 98& protein, while whey concentrate contains 70 to 85% protein.

Whey Concentrate Whey concentrate is a more cost-effective member of the whey family. It requires less processing time, but also contains more fat and lactose. Whey concentrate is 70 to 85% protein.

Whey Protein Blends Whey protein blends are specialized protein formulas that contain both whey Isolates and whey concentrates. Whey protein blends are generally more cost effective then whey isolate, and have a higher protein percentage ratio then whey concentrates.

Casein Protein Casein proteins account for 80% of the protein in milk.  Casein protein is a slow digesting protein that is isolated from milk. It is 92% protein, and has a very “thick” taste. Because of this, it is a very popular protein in weight gainers. Casein protein, although it has a lower BV value then whey, is more efficiently used to build muscle. Because casein protein is used by the body to build muscle, and less is used as a energy source, casein supplementation encourages the body to use carbs and stored fat for energy. Casein is also very high in the popular bodybuilding supplement glutamine.

Egg Albumin Egg albumin is the egg white. It is popular in bodybuilding circles because of a higher essential to non-essential amino acid ratio, and because egg whites contain less cholesterol then egg yolks. Eggs are often considered the king of natural food proteins because of their high essential amino acids levels. Egg protein is the best alternative for those that are lactose intolerant.

Soy Protein Soy protein is high quality, but not as efficient as milk or casein protein, It is a fast digesting protein source that has an average amino acid profile. Because of this, it is not the most desirable protein source for those looking to build muscle.

Soy Protein Isolate Soy protein isolate has a greater BV then regular soy protein, meaning that more of it is utilized by the body. But soy protein isolate is of lower quality then soy protein.

Goat Milk Protein No other protein source has a higher bioavailability then goat milk protein. In addition, goat milk protein is extremely high in BCAA and is 100% lactose free. Its BV rating of 104 is superior to most foods, including eggs, which have a 100 BV.

Wheat Protein Wheat protein is a healthy and natural alternative to dairy and egg-based proteins. It is lactose and cholesterol free, and is perfect for vegetarian bodybuilders and athletes. Wheat protein is also very high is glutamic acid.

Pea Protein Pea protein is a 100% gluten free protein source that is a great alternative for vegetarians. As with wheat protein, pea protein is lactose free and does not contain any cholesterol. It is very easy to digest and is rich in amino acids.

Complete Milk Protein Complete milk protein is the dried protein from milk, with the carbs and fat removed. Milk protein is nutritious, and contains calcium and high levels of other vitamins and minerals. Complete milk protein contains both whey and casein proteins.


The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults in the USA is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. This translates to approximately 0.36 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight. For a 200 pound individual, the minimum RDA requirement is 72 grams of protein per day. For a 150 pound individual, the minimum RDA requirement is 54 grams of protein per day.

Those involved with intense exercise, or individuals looking to add muscle mass, should consume at least twice the RDA’s recommended minimums. It is generally advised that bodybuilders eat 1 to 1.5 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight. Another good guideline is to make sure that 20 to 40% of your daily calories come from protein sources.

1 to 1.5 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight.

Bodyweight – Grams of Protein Required

    125 pounds – 125 to 188 grams of protein
    150 pounds – 150 to 225 grams of protein
    175 pounds – 175 to 263 grams of protein
    200 pounds – 200 to 300 grams of protein
    225 pounds – 225 to 338 grams of protein
    250 pounds – 250 to 375 grams of protein

20 to 40% of daily calories from protein.

Calories – Grams of Protein Required

    1500 calories – 75 to 150 grams of protein
    2000 calories – 100 to 200 grams of protein
    2500 calories – 125 to 250 grams of protein
    3000 calories – 150 to 300 grams of protein
    3500 calories – 175 to 350 grams of protein
    4000 calories – 200 to 400 grams of protein
    5000 calories – 250 to 500 grams of protein

All the "serious" bodybuilders would rather give up their testicles than their protein supplements, and, thanks to steroid abuse, many have given up their testicles. Protein supplements are a good idea for someone who works out hard, and wants to add muscle, but keep in mind that you really can not properly utilize much more than 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight a day, and 1.5 grams per pound is probably the absolute most that you can utilize, so don't go totally gonzo with supplementation. Also some evidence exists indicating possible kidney damage due to excessive protein intake. Lastly, protein does contain calories, and consuming more than your body uses could mean fat storage. So unless you want to throw away money, possibly damage your health, and maybe just get fat, supplement with protein reasonably.


Amino acids, contrary to popular belief, are not what people were taking at Woodstock. They are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side-chain that varies between different amino acids. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They are particularly important in biochemistry, where the term usually refers to alpha-amino acids. Of the approximately 29 commonly known amino acids, nine of them are essential, meaning that your body cannot synthesize them from available materials, as it can with other amino acids. Amino acids are available in your diet, as long as you eat a healthy balanced diet. The only time that you really might run across deficiencies, is if you stick to a vegetarian diet, because contrary to what PETA, (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), would have you believe, vegetable proteins are incomplete. Various amino acid supplements are available, either as individual ones, or in a number of combinations. The most popular sold over the counter are arginine, tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamine, and lysine. Supplementation with specific amino acids can get very expensive, and even though there are specific uses for the different amino acids, I honestly think that the expense far outweighs the benefit.

The Amino Acids

Alanine 2-aminopropanoic acid, is non-essential. It exists as two distinct enantiomers - L-alanine and D-alanine. L-alanine is one of the 20 most commonly used in protein synthesis.

Arginine converts into nitric oxide. Arginine is considered semi-essential because although it is normally synthesized in sufficient amounts by the body, supplementation is sometimes required (for example, due to inborn errors of urea synthesis, protein malnutrition, excess ammonia production, excessive lysine intake, burns, peritoneal dialysis). Arginine is sometimes found in herbal sexual enhancement products.

Asparagine is one of the 20 most common. Aspartic acid is closely related to asparagine.

Cysteine or Cystine A more active form of cysteine is acetylcysteine, which is a powerful antioxidant.

Glutamic acid L-Glutamic acid and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) are found in virtually all living organisms. In their pure form, they are powders. L-Glutamic acid is one of the major amino acids in plant and animal proteins, and is also involved in many physiologic functions. Both active ingredients act as neurotransmitters in the brain. Humans readily metabolize ingested L-glutamic acid so that concentrations in the body remain constant. Enzymes in animals and plants convert L-glutamic acid to GABA. Glutamic acid is also referred to as glutamate (the anion).

Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. Its side chain is an amide; it is formed by replacing a side-chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group.
Glycine is chemically the simplest and combines with many toxins to reduce their toxicity.

Histidine is one of the 20 common ones present in proteins. In humans, histidine is considered essential, but mostly only in children.

Isoleucine is essential and also a branched chain along with leucine and valine.

Leucine A diet rich in leucine might help prevent the muscle loss that typically comes with aging. French researchers found that a leucine -supplemented diet restored a more youthful pattern of muscle-protein breakdown and synthesis to elderly rats.

Lysine is sometimes used to prevent herpes virus outbreaks although the research on this topic has shown mixed results.

Methionine and cysteine are the only sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids. The methionine derivative S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) serves as a methyl donor. Methionine plays a role in cysteine, carnitine and taurine synthesis, lecithin production, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and other phospholipids.  Methionine is an amino acid that has antioxidant properties. Methionine acts as a methyl donor. Methionine may be converted to SAM-e.

Phenylalanine comes in D,L Phenylalanine or L Phenylalanine. Tyrosine is produced from phenylalanine, so if the diet is deficient in phenylalanine, tyrosine will be required as well.

Proline is one of the 20 used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. The other nineteen units are all primary amino acids, but due to the cyclic binding of the three-carbon side chain to the nitrogen of the backbone, proline lacks a primary amine group (-NH2).

Serine It is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from other metabolites, including glycine.

Threonine is one of the 20. Nutritionally, in humans, threonine is essential.

Tryptophan was available over the counter until banned in 1989. Early in 2000s, tryptophan supplements began to be marketed again.

Tyrosine is used to enhance alertness and mood. Tyrosine is found in Mind Power Rx. for information on tyrosine phenylalanine supplements. You can buy Tyrosine amino acid supplement here. There is also another form of tyrosine called N acetyl tyrosine.

Valine is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Valine is essential. Valine is named after the plant valerian.


Creatine is naturally synthesized in the human body from amino acids primarily in the kidney and liver and transported in the blood for use by muscles. Approximately 95% of the body's total creatine content is located in skeletal muscle.

Creatine was discovered in the 1800s as an organic constituent of meat. In the 1970s, Soviet scientists reported that oral creatine supplements may improve athletic performance during brief, intense activities such as sprints. Creatine gained popularity in the 1990s as a "natural" way to enhance athletic performance and build lean body mass. It was reported that skeletal muscle total creatine content increases with oral creatine supplementation, although response is variable.

The wonder drug, so to speak, of supplements! No doubt this stuff works. I used a couple of cycles of creatine in the past, and my strength went up, and my muscles got bigger. But I have mixed feelings about creatine for a couple of reasons;

  • Cost

The people that produce creatine know that it works, and they charge you accordingly.

  • Temporary effects

It is widely believed the Creatine increase the amount of water inside of muscle tissue cells. This probably does not cause any increases in performance, but does serve to "volumize" the muscles, or make them look fuller. As far as functional purposes, creatine is found in your muscles in the form of creatine phosphate. When the ATP in your muscles, (the source of energy for muscular contraction), gives up it's phosphorous molecule, it releases energy. The creatine phosphate waits in the wings, and gives up it's phosphorous to replenish the ATP. All well and good, but what does this mean ? Well, it means more powerful muscular contractions, (strength), for a longer period of time, (endurance). But the downside is, unless you keep your muscles supplied with an unnatural amount of creatine, they cannot sustain these levels. In other words if you quit taking it, the effects disappear, and to me, that is bordering on unacceptable for such a pricey supplement. There have also been some concerns raised in the recent past about creatine and possible dehydration problems. I believe that mostly they are unwarranted, however, if you do choose to use this supplement, you would be well advised to make sure you drink a lot of water.

  • Excessive Sugar

Most creatine is sold as a drink mix. It is a very tasty drink indeed, but the problem is that the delivery system relies on excessive sugar. The reasoning is that a quick influx of sugar into your system triggers an insulin response that will speed up delivery of the creatine to your muscles. Knowing the ill effects that sugar has, I don't think this is a good trade-off.


There are a number of testosterone boosting supplements available today. Generally, if you are young and healthy, I believe you are best advised to stay away from them. Your body is a wonderful machine, and with the proper fuel, it can work wonders. In my opinion intentionally altering your hormone balance without a darn good reason can be a dangerous thing. I believe that with the proper stimulation (exercise), and Nutrition, your hormones will be produced just fine. It is very naive and shortsighted to think that changing the levels of certain hormones will have no effect other than larger muscles. Hormones control much more than just the size of muscle tissue. Most people believe that elevated testosterone equals elevated anger and aggression. That may or may not be true, but it may be dangerous to try to manipulate your hormones, and unless there is a specific medical reason that your hormone balance needs to be manipulated, to put it bluntly, DON'T FUCK WITH IT!  However, as men get older it is an undeniable fact that testosterone levels fall, and so this is the circumstance in which I believe that taking measures to boost testosterone is the right choice.

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September 11, 2001